Mineral processing refers to a number of interrelated procedures that are all aimed at extracting valuable material from ores. Many valuable minerals are mined as ores, which are rocks that contain useful substances. Mineral processing was done by hand in the past, though in modern times it is typically achieved through the use of heavy machinery.
Oxide ores are generally processed using hydrometallurgy. This process uses aqueous (water-based) solutions to extract and purify copper from copper oxide ores at ordinary temperatures, usually in three steps: heap leaching, solvent extraction, and electrowinning.
Crushing, a form of comminution, one of the unit operations of mineral processing. In the field of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, also known as ore dressing, is the process of separating commercially valuable minerals from their ores.
Concentration is defined as the number of moles of a solute in a volume of the solution. In case of mineral processing concentration means the increase of the percentage of the valuable mineral in the concentrate.